• Argument: Must be valid and sound
  • Valid: An argument such that if premise is true, then the conclusion must be true
  • Sound: If and only if valid and premises are true
  • Sentence: Physical utterance or inscription
  • Proposition: Abstract content that does not exist in time and space

Faulty Logic:

  • Irrelevant authority
  • False Division: Assigning qualities of individual to collective group
  • Fake composition: Assigning truths of individual to collective group
  • Deck stacking: One-sided
  • Red herring: Changing subject
  • Reification: Treating abstraction as something concrete
  • Biurfication: For or against
  • Ambiguity
  • Post hoc: Cause and effect should not be assumed if one follows another in time
  • Circular reasoning
  • Begging the question
  • Name calling
  • Argumentum ad hominem: To discredit the man who proposed argument
  • Argumentum ad vercundian: To associate argument with prestige
  • Argumentum ad popular: To appeal argument to crowd
  • Argumentum ad baculum: Argument by force
  • Argumentum ad ignoration: Argument by ignorance
  • Generalizations: Hasty generalizations, overstatements, fairness